Tag: Genetics + Genomics

Scientists Show Cloning Can Turn Back Developmental Clock and Faithfully Reproduce X-Inactivation

November 23, 2000

Settling a hotly debated issue in the field of cloning, a team of researchers from the Whitehead Institute and the University of Hawaii has shown that the egg can reset the developmental clock of a female adult cell, first reversing and then faithfully reproducing an early genetic event called X-inactivation. X-inactivation is a process by which one of two X chromosomes in female embryos is randomly silenced during development.

Scientists Publish First Dense SNP Map of the Human Genome; SNP Total Exceeds 1.2 Million

September 27, 2000

Researchers at the Whitehead Institute and The Sanger Centre report their contributions to the methodology and progress of The SNP Consortium, an international effort to assemble and release the first high-resolution map of common variations in human DNA called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. SNPs are the bedrock of human genetics: they can be used to track inheritance of any gene, contribute to the traits that make us unique, and underlie our susceptibilities to common diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. It is also believed that SNPs help explain why individuals respond differently to drugs.

Whitehead Institute Receives National Science Foundation Grant to Sequence Neurospora

September 26, 2000

The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research has received a two-year, $5.25 million grant from the National Science Foundation to sequence the genome of the common laboratory fungus Neurospora crassa and to deposit the information in public databases.

Scientists Identify a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Responsible for Increased Risk of Diabetes

August 27, 2000

Researchers at the Whitehead Institute have shown that a common genetic variant increases the risk of contracting type 2 diabetes. The variant, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a gene called PPAR gamma, is carried by billions of people and helps to explain why some people are more likely than others to contract diabetes. The study, published in the September issue of Nature Genetics, has several implications: it offers new insights into the underlying causes of diabetes and more generally provides a blueprint for analyzing the role of SNPs in disease.

Men are not in Driver's Seat of Human Evolution

August 9, 2000

For more than half a century, the field of human genetics has harbored a gender bias about the relative contribution of males versus females to human evolution. Since 1947, when biologist J.B.S Haldane suggested that the rate of genetic mutation is much higher in the male germ line than in the female germ line, geneticists have credited males with much of the evolutionary changes that occurred in the 5 million years since human ancestors departed from chimpanzees.

Whitehead Human Genome Project and SNP Consortium Announce Collaboration To Identify New Genetic Markers for Disease and Enhance Utility of Human Genome "Working Draft"

July 11, 2000

The Human Genome Project (HGP) and The SNP Consortium today announced plans to generate a new set of human DNA sequence information that will contribute 125,000 to 250,000 validated and useful genetic markers known as single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. The information also will enhance the HGP working draft sequence of the human genome.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Announces "Working Draft" of Human Genome

June 26, 2000

The Human Genome Project public consortium today announced that it has assembled a working draft of the sequence of the human genome — the genetic blueprint for a human being. This major milestone involved two tasks: placing large fragments of DNA in the proper order to cover all of the human chromosomes, and determining the DNA sequence of these fragments.

Tracing the Evolution of Sex Chromosomes

October 29, 1999

Of the 46 human chromosomes, 44 are members of identical pairs. But two—the X and the Y—stand apart because they have no perfect match. Nevertheless, evolution has charged these two genetic loners with the critical task of sex determination: embryos with two X chromosomes develop into females, while embryos with an X and a Y chromosome develop into males.

New DNA Chip Method Could Improve Cancer Diagnosis

October 14, 1999

One of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment is choosing the right regimen for a given patient. Treatment strategies work differently for different tumors. In choosing effective treatments with minimal side effects, oncologists rely heavily on biopsy reports that diagnose the tumor type involved. However, even today, cancer diagnosis is done the old-fashioned way: by observing morphological changes in biopsies under the microscope. The method suffers from serious limitations because cancer cells that look similar under the microscope can follow different clinical courses and respond differently to therapy. Now, in a new study reported in Friday's Science,a team of Whitehead-led researchers reports the first systematic and objective approach for identifying and classifying tumor types.

Whitehead Receives $35 Million Grant from National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)

March 12, 1999

The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Medical Research will receive approximately $35 million from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), National Institutes of Health, to participate in the first year of the definitive, full-scale effort to sequence the human genome.

“SOMs” Help Analyze Thousands of Genes

March 12, 1999

Using a sophisticated computer algorithm, a team of scientists at the Whitehead Institute has designed a new technique to analyze the massive amounts of data generated by DNA microarrays, also known as DNA chips. This technique will help scientists decipher how our 100,000 genes work together to keep us healthy and how diseases result when they fail.

Whitehead Receives $7 million NIH Grant to Build High-Speed Sequencing Machines

March 1, 1999

The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research has received a three-year, $7 million grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute to develop chip-based genome sequencing machines that can sequence 7 million DNA letters per day, or 2 billion letters per year. Once these machines are up and running, it would be possible to use as few as 20 machines to sequence an entire mammalian genome in one year, according to Whitehead scientists.

Pages

© Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research              455 Main Street          Cambridge, MA 02142